Executive Functioning

Define Executive Function – Disorder 101

Do you have a child in your life who is a bit “all over the place”? Is he a “paper stuffer”?  When you enter his room, do you have to push open the door because it is such a mess? 

We can share frustrations and laugh about these kids but these tendencies will cause many problems as they grow and develop into adults. If you are in this boat, then the issue is one of an executive function disorder and maybe even an issue with mental health.

What is Executive Function Disorder?

Consider this post an introductory guide to executive function, what it means, signs of executive dysfunction, and strategies to develop these skills in kids who are struggling with executive functioning.  Are you concerned about your child?

In most cases, there’s nothing to worry about; every child develops differently, what may appear as learning disabilities are actually learning differences, and some children just need special forms of attention to inspire their abilities.

Some persistent deficiencies in executive function, however, can be indicative of a serious learning disorder, so it’s important to learn more about executive skills and how to foster these skills in your child if he or she seems to be behind.  So, let’s dig a bit deeper.

Definition of the Term Executive Functioning

The Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University defines executive function skills as “the mental processes that enable us to plan, focus attention, remember instructions, and juggle multiple tasks successfully.”

These skills allow us to focus on particular details, prioritize effectively, and enforce delayed gratification to make sure that things get done.

Executive skills aren’t innate. While some children have more potential to develop effective executive skills than others, these skills are largely a product of a child’s brain chemistry and environment.

Identifying the Gaps & Creating a Plan

One of the most important factors in the development of these skills is identifying the gaps in executive function early in a child’s life.

Once observed, teachers and parents can implement create a plan including activities, exercises, and perhaps outside therapy to assist in a child’s development of executive skills.

Related Read: Resources to Help Your Child with Executive Functioning Skills

In extreme cases, negative environmental factors can prevent normal brain growth and cause children to exhibit hyperactive or disruptive behaviors.

Furthermore, impediments to the normal development of executive functioning in young children can have continuing negative effects throughout a child’s developing and adult years.

So, learning about the symptoms of poor executive functioning and the strategies that can be used to improve this critical developmental factor can help parents and caregivers guide at-risk children back on positive developmental tracks.

It is important to remember that children are not born with executive function skills. Instead, they are born with the potential to develop these skills.

What Is Executive Function Disorder?

Executive Function Disorder is often associated with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD).  ADHD is considered to be a type of executive function impairment but certainly not every child with executive dysfunction has ADHD. 

A child may be considered to have EFD when his or her executive functioning skills appear out of sync with her development.

According to the ADD publication ADDitude, children start developing executive functions at age two. These functions continue to develop until age 30.

ADDitude estimates that people with ADHD can experience delays in the development of executive functioning by up to 40 percent, and it’s believed that EFD may be linked to poor development in the prefrontal cortex.

Parts of the Brain Impacted by EFD

The three main areas involving executive functioning are working memory, self-regulation, and mental flexibility. These three areas are interrelated and affect most areas of the brain. In order for EF to execute effectively, all three areas much work together.

{Source: Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University}

Examples of Executive Function Skills

There are seven types of skills that are associated with executive function.

These skills are:

  1. Self-awareness
  2. Self-restraint
  3. Non-verbal working memory
  4. Verbal working memory
  5. Emotional intelligence
  6. Self-motivation
  7. Planning and problem solving

In children with EFD, most or all of these executive skills are inhibited. By using various exercises and techniques, it may be possible to boost or restore executive skills in affected children.

Executive Function Disorder 101

Symptoms & Signs of Executive Function Disorder

While children with ADHD often have trouble paying attention to activities in the present, children with EFD have an inability to plan for the future. Children with this disorder have trouble setting schedules or staying organized, and they may habitually lose personal items.

Some common signs of EFD include:

  1. Not able to effectively analyze a task
  2. Failure to develop an effective plan for taking care of a task
  3. Inability to plan out specific steps necessary to complete a task
  4. Failure to develop reasonable timelines for achieving tasks
  5. Unable to adapt to new conditions or adjust procedures when achieving a task
  6. Failure to complete tasks on time

Emotional Regulation & EFD

In young children, EFD may show itself in the form of angry or frustrated behavior. Young children with EFD may have trouble handling setbacks, and they may throw tantrums over seemingly minimal issues.

Instead of capably expressing their emotions with words or other socially acceptable mediums of expression, children with EFD may act aggressively. They may also be resistant to the normal flow of classroom behavior, and they may stubbornly choose to act on their own impulses rather than follow the established protocols.

As children with executive functioning issues get older and enter grade school, they become highly resistant to any changes in routine. In addition, their organization difficulties become more pronounced.

During middle school and high school, failures to adapt to social norms and implement systems to help with EFD may lead to becoming increasingly socially withdrawn. Additionally, they may engage in risky behaviors. For example, they may have trouble choosing careers or holding down jobs.

What Kids with Executive Dysfunction Need Most

  • Systems on which to rely
  • Growth Mindset
  • Routines
  • Baby Steps. In other words, celebrating small victories with your child. The development of these skills is not going to happen overnight. Often it takes years, so acknowledge baby steps and lean into positive behavior is a big way for a while

Skill Development

Below are examples of skills on which to focus.

Here is a short list:

  • Ability to plan ahead
  • Time management
  • Prioritize tasks
  • Decision making
  • Able to inhibit thoughts & actions, not be impulsive
  • Focus & attention
  • Juggling memory
  • Pivoting
  • Self-starting
  • Follow-through
  • Reflectiveness (this is where mindfulness exercises come in really handy)
  • Regulating emotion

Strategies for Kids

Most instances of executive function disorder manifest at an early age, so early intervention is important. For example, one of the best ways to help develop skills to combat these challenges is to expose to activities and exercises that will help close gaps.

With that said, once it’s clear that EFD is interfering with a child’s ability to learn and develop socially, it may be useful to enlist the assistance of professionals.

For instance, speech therapists, reading tutors, or psychologists test & guide your child. Finally, an executive function test will pinpoint the exact areas that need focus.

In-class behavioral modification techniques, such as daily report cards and token systems, may be effective strategies. Adults might consider the use of external information crutches like cards, smartphone apps, and sticky notes to improve focus and motivation.

Related Read: Activities Guide: Enhancing and Practicing Executive Function Skills with Children from Infancy to Adolescence

Lastly, children with EFD may be responsive to the same stimulant drugs that are used to treat ADHD. As in all cases of behavioral issues, however, drugs should be relied on as a last resort after behavioral modification and positive forms of adult support have failed.

Create a System for Your Child

Bottom line, a child needs to create a system that works for him.  This system may include:

  • a paper management system
  • a binder system (this doesn’t work for most children with executive function disorder)
  • a folder system with specific labels written in large print with the name of the subject and the child
  • grade monitoring
  • self-advocacy when his body doesn’t quite feel right and he is unable to focus, ask the teacher or parent to take a break, drink some water, grab a fidget, or use headphones
  • secure study space that works for the child perhaps near natural light, in a cozy chair, with a divider, with headphones
  • weekly overhaul to clean out the backpack, desk, cubby, etc
  • daily check-ins asking the questions: What is my most important thing today? What am I forgetting?
  • create a today list every day with no more than 4 items in order to avoid overwhelm
  • chunking by time and task using a timer
  • less is more, so taking the time to declutter every week

Activities to Help Executive Functioning Skills

There are a variety of activities that may assist a child with executive function disorder in attaining normative cognitive and social development. Here are some examples of effective executive function activities:

#1 – Skill-Building Games

There are a number of different board games and other types of games that you can play with your child to encourage the healthy development of executive skills. While it’s unclear how much these games actually improve the symptoms of EFD, they provide opportunities to spend quality time with your child, which will certainly improve his or her social adaptability and overall happiness.

#2 – Competitive Sports

Competitive sports are some of the best activities for executive function disorder. These types of activities assist children in developing social skills, and they also boost cognitive flexibility and anticipation.

While any type of physical exercise will help with the symptoms of EFD by improving overall health, team sports allow children to become closer to their peers and learn more about working together to achieve shared goals. It isn’t necessary to compete in physical sports; any type of competitive activity, such as chess, will improve executive functioning in children.

#3 – Musical Activities

It has long since been concluded that music helps improve brain functioning, and listening to music can help children with EFD focus and regulate their emotions. The benefits of music become even more pronounced, however, when you encourage your child with EFD to learn how to play an instrument.

#4 – Creative Outlets to Assist with Executive Function Disorder

Drawing, building, and designing whether in 2D or 3D are enormously helpful for a high performing child with executive function dysfunction. In many cases, children with executive dysfunction are also gifted, which means their brain is often on fire. Therefore, the adults in their lives need to make certain these children have outlets.

Helping Your Child with Executive Function Disorder

I attended a conference on parenting gifted children recently. One of the presenters, Seth Perler, focused his presentation (and life’s work for that matter) on helping gifted children with these gaps in executive functioning.

I took away a ton from his talk. His main takeaway for me and one I believe he emphasized was our relationship with the child matters the most.

Children struggling with these tasks, often struggle with big emotions, depression, anxiety, poor self-image, too. In other words, children experience and feel the world differently than the typical human being does.

As we work with them through the process of developing their weaknesses into strengths, we need to be developing a strong, solid, loving, genuine relationship with them. 

Furthermore, don’t allow the child to define himself or be defined by his giftedness or “disability”.  It was a powerful way to end his extremely practical talk outlining helpful strategies for teachers and parents.

Marnie Craycroft

Marnie hails from Maine where she spent summers buried in sand and winters buried in snow. She is the daughter of a nearly four decade veteran of the public school systems. Teaching has always been a part of her life. She founded Carrots Are Orange in 2010.

Carrots Are Orange is a Montessori learning and living website for parents and teachers.

Marnie graduated from Wesleyan University in 1999 with a BA in Economics. She spent nearly a decade working in investment management. In 2006, she earned her MA in business from the University of Washington’s Foster School of Business.

Marnie moved to the west coast in 1999 and currently lives in Boulder with her husband and three sons. She is Montessori trained. Her work has been featured on Apartment Therapy, Buzzfeed, PBS Kids, BabyCenter, the Melissa & Doug blog, Huffington Post, and WhattoExpect.com. Besides writing, passions include running (usually after her three sons), photography, and outdoor adventures.

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